2014-11-17

The Capital Riding the Law under the Gaze of the Terror

Legend has it that the sage Aristotle fell in love with an Athenian prostitute to the point of losing his reason. The anecdote was later taken up by many writers and artists throughout History in different versions. One of them is the poem Lai d'Aristote by Henry d'Andeli (or Henri de Valenciennes), in which the character of Alexander the Great appears as the third party. Alexander, while conquering India, falls in love with a local young court lady, who distracts him from his war duties. Aristotle, who is responsible for the warrior's education, suggests him to abandon the beautiful woman, in order to accomplish his military labor in a proper and virtuous way. After that, the courtesan decides to take revenge on the philosopher, by seducing him while he is engaged in his studies. Aristotle cannot resist the temptation, and she agrees to grant him her favors, provided that he accepts to be ridden as a horse. The fable seems to prevent the Knowledge, face to its jealousy against the Power, from the risk of falling victim to the Lust, and distancing itself in this way from Virtue.

But today we can interpret this allegory in a different sense. Thus, even though the West was able to conjure for quite some time, thanks to the Christian Virgin, the ancient pagan Sacred Prostitute, she seems to revive today
in global capitalism under new forms. Now it is the Law who becomes openly seduced by the Capital, jealous of the pleasures the Terror enjoys in its intimacy. And, even though the Law presents itself as an example of virtue, the fact is that it doesn't hesitate to be humiliated, by obeying the dictates of the Capital. All that happens while the proud Terror, regarding from afar, enjoys the moral weakness of the Law, its lack of will.

Image after Johannes Sadeler I's Phyllis and Aristotle (16th cent.) [pd] and others.

2014-11-11

Immortalize the Moment

If the sacrificial phenomenon can be basically described as the dissociation of body and spirit, then it could be argued that many seemingly profane and banal contemporary practices would be imbued, even if only in a vague manner, by a sacrificial character. Something of this sort must have been thought by Roland Barthes when he said that photography "emits" a "eidolon", a "Spectrum", which is in fact nothing less than "the return of the dead" (Camera Lucida. Reflections on Photography, 1980). Later on, he explicitly states: "Photography has something to do with resurrection". It would be, therefore, in photography, something which derives from the universal mythic theme of the death and the resurrection. Thus, today everybody can immortalize his most significant moments.

In this sense, modernity should be understood as a fragmentation, a relaxation, a détente of the mythical -- we would go as far as to say the sacrificial -- rather than its overcoming. 

Image after Andrea Mantegna's The Crucifixion (1457-59) [pd] and Benvenuto Tisi's (Il Garofalo) The Ascension (c. 1510-20) [pd].

2014-11-10

The Metamorphosis of the Leader

Considering the purest sense of the terms, democracy and capitalism are antagonistic notions. While in democracy the power resides in the people, in capitalism it is held by the capitalists (or by the capitalist mechanisms themselves). Thus, true democracy implies the control of capitalism, while a more pure capitalism means a deficiency in democracy. It is therefore not surprising that the neoliberal capitalist regime that rules throughout the West today is necessarily accompanied by imperfect, empty, fake democracies, if not something prone to totalitarianism.

In addition, capitalism involves a powerful propaganda apparatus, one of their objectives being precisely to build the myth of democracy and bestow
their representatives with an almost sacred character. Thus, neoliberal "democratic" leaders must be sufficiently charismatic and pregnant to appear to be more politicians than actors. For the policy is in reality practiced in the realm of the capital, and the fundamental role of these representatives is to play a theatrical plot. The paradox is that they must look like the old great statesmen, while their attributes must be those of an actor or a public relations professional.

It could be even argued that the best leaders of our time would suffer from a certain schizophrenia
-- at least in practice: they must pretend to have conviction, determination, security, courage, political will; but must be unambitious, obedient, submissive, fearful of the true power. The spectra of many statesmen assassinated in the last century precisely by practicing politics, surely must be present in their worst nightmares [aw].

2014-11-03

The Eternal Return of the Capital

One of the main illusions of capitalism is to believe that money has a value in itself. Especially in the past few decades in which the dominant currency in the world -- the dollar -- is no longer backed by any real wealth -- as was the case of gold -- and economies go more and more into debt. The monetary authorities would have us believe that a crisis can be solved by creating money. But this fictitious money not only does not contribute to the creation of wealth, but in fact reproduces and exacerbates the social inequalities and the mechanisms of capital extraction from the productive towards the financial sectors. By contrast, following the well-known law of conservation of energy, we could say that "wealth can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form".

On the other hand, it is necessary to debunk the myth according to which quantity and quality can be independent notions. This is particularly relevant in the case of money. Thus, we could say, using a spatial metaphor, that the quantity bends as it increases, involving in this way the quality. Or in other words, wealth does not grow unidirectionally, but rather bends, twists, in some sort of cyclical manner, to end up reproducing itself.

Based on this logic, we propose to give visibility to this essential contradiction between the notions of money and wealth. To do that we create a helicoid consisting of a sort of materialization of money, that is to say, a representation of wealth. Or to be more accurate, a helical torus or spring, closing on itself, consisting of 13 turns, as the annual, but also eternal return of the lunar cycles, referring to the uninterrupted -- and unconscious -- flow of wealth reproduction [aw].

2014-09-24

A Colossus with Feet of Clay

Global capitalism is "a colossus with feet of clay." Never before a power regime has been able to cause so much violence and suffering to so many people worldwide. At the same time, a very elaborate propaganda apparatus, infiltrated in all the structures of the system, is in charge of hiding this violence behind the masks of structural poverty, racial or religious conflicts, natural disasters or epidemics. The success of this structural violence is largely due to a monetary system, monopolized by the big capital, based on the creation of money out of nothing -- in fact, forgery of official documents -- and a fractional-reserve banking system -- fraud and misappropriation -- (Jesús Huerta del Soto, "Crisis financiera, reforma bancaria y el futuro del capitalismo", 2012). In other words, legalized crime. This fictitious capital, not only generates structural economic instability, but also involves a greater exploitation of natural resources and labor force, particularly in the weakest levels of the system.

Today, we can affirm without exaggeration that the financial system is a parasitical "colossus" devoted to the extraction of wealth from the poorest. Under the realm of global neoliberalism, the children working in brick factories around the world are the "feet of clay" which bear the colossus of financial speculation.


Image after Franciso de Goya or follower's The Colossus (1808-1812) [pd], child labour in Afghanistan [ua-fu/fd] and Dow Jones Industrial Average chart.

2014-09-22

Après moi, le déluge

The "disaster capitalism" (Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, 2007) is always on the lookout for any major catastrophe to make profit from others' misfortune. The same "shock" or destructive effects produced by a "color revolution", a coup d'etat or a war -- probably secretly instigated or provoked by intelligence agencies, "humanitarian" foundations or the capitalist fifth column -- can be much more easily caused by a so-called "natural" catastrophe. For, in fact, it is becoming more and more difficult to distinguish whether these catastrophes, epidemic or riots are natural or artificial, specially when it comes to the colonization mechanisms of the neoliberal capital.

Furthermore, from an ideological point of view, it is surprising to observe that globalization, which presents itself as a tendency of "progress", is in fact
nourished on a deeper level by ancient mythic narratives. Thus, the circle of history closes, in such a way that the great mythological catastrophes that gave rise to civilization, reappear now in reverse sense, as possible "ends of the world" that channel the people's fears in the direction desired by the big capital.

Image after Simon de Myle's Noah's Ark on Mount Ararat (1570) [pd-fu/fd], Léon Comerre's Le Déluge (The Deluge, 1911) [pd-fu/fd] and others [ua-fu/fd].

United Terrorists of the Empire

The global empire of neoliberal capital, in its general tendency to outsourcing and subcontracting its different business sectors, naturally extends this practice to the international terrorism. In this way it solves one of its main contradictions: its need to an endlessly growth in a context of limited resources and demand. In other words, capitalism requires the destruction of war to construct new business areas. But also, the destruction itself generates huge profits, through what has been called "disaster capitalism" (Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, 2007), benefiting from terror and "shock" in the population to legitimize huge transfers of capital from the public to the private sectors, beyond democratic mechanisms. Outsourcing war to terrorist groups allows, first, hiding from the citizenship of the centers that wars are essentially promoted by the West, and they are a structural element of the system. Furthermore, this huge institutional lie, designed and communicated with the complicity of the mainstream media, justifies the selective interventions of the military forces of the centers (Thierry Meyssan, "El regreso del plan yanqui de rediseño del Medio Oriente ampliado", www.voltairenet.org, 2014). If that were not enough, this huge imposture of our governments also serves to the demonization of the other -- in general -- and of Muslims -- in particular -- as well as to the implementation of the police state in the centers, that actually seek to repress the citizenship's discontent with this terribly unfair and corrupt political and economic system.

Image [aw] after United States' and Islamic State's flags.

2014-09-18

Amputee Currency

The monetary system that prevails in the West is characterized by an amputee currency. Indeed, both the central banks' public debt and the commercial banks' fractionary reserve, imply that our money worths less than what it is supposed to. This system mainly benefits the financial speculation and the banking business, while it harms the disadvantaged.

It is nothing but a form of legalized crime: counterfeiting of currency and accounting fraud, protected by law. What happens is so simple as that: at one end of the system money is created out of nothing -- of which, of course, the capitalists keep a part --, while at the other end of the system the tensions to provide real wealth to this fictional money need to be
increased. For the value of the currency tends to balance out along the spectrum of the system -- similarly to communicating vessels --, so that this artificial creation of money causes a greater extraction of capital from the human labor and the natural resources.

All in all, it is a system that exacerbates economic instability,
inflationary and deflationary bubbles, the exploitation of men and resources. In other words, this mechanism increases the structural violence of the whole system. In the same way that trying to hide a lie has consequences for everybody involved, this legal crime committed by the states and the banks produces much suffering and death to the victims. If we were to visualize it, it is as if the bills were amputee. And this is not a simple metaphor. Because capitalism actually needs to wage wars in order to incorporate more life to its domain.

Image after Great Seal of the United States' one-dollar bill (1957 and 1964) [pd-fu/fd] and Ray Lewis/Marine Corps' photo of corporal Garrett S. Jones [pd-fu/fd].

2014-09-17

The Iatrogenocidal Challenge

From Christianity to neoliberal capitalism, a great challenge of the elites has been gradually transforming the sadistic instincts of man into masochistic ones, in order to subject people as optimally as possible to their interests. So it is not strange that the torture techniques are one of the laboratories par excellence in which new forms of social control are tested. The ultimate goal would be that these techniques become so refined that, not only can be used against the civilian population with the greatest appearance of impunity, but also they become desired by the victims themselves. Here we are obviously facing a case of banalization of originally sacrificial rituals.

The Ice Bucket Challenge 
responds perfectly to this perverse logic. It is based on an ancient torture technique, but still systematically used with variations by major intelligence agencies as a form of institutional torture, in contravention of international conventions on this matter. Thus, this viral campaign works as a smokescreen for the real institutional torture, so that the related information provided by the few media not subjected to the capitalist censorship, can be somehow distorted. In the same way that Hollywood makes us believe in the legitimacy of torture as a technique for obtaining information (Kathryn Bigelow's Zero Dark Thirty, 2002). Entertainment industry used as propaganda of the totalitarian capitalist regime. "Banalisation of evil".

But behind the comicality of the Ice Bucket a still more retrograde strategy hides. The campaign aims to raise funds for such a rare disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an incidence as low as 2 cases for every 100,000 persons. This trend can be observed in other phenomena of neoliberal medical industry, in which the whole public health systems are progressively dismantled
while new rare and suspicious diseases --ALS might be caused by vaccines (Leonard Horowitz, "The Avian Flu Fright is Politically Timed. A Public Health Warning and Political Essay", Tetrahedron, 2005)-- serve to the extension of the capitalist profit. In short, the retrogression in social justice and citizenship rights is masked by charity campaigns that in fact contribute to the system's injustices.

But the background of this ridiculous fashion is even darker. It can be linked to the so-called "charitable foundations" that, under the pretext of "humanitarism" work in coordination with
large multinationals, so that the terrible effects on the environment and the health of the people that they cause, is covered up by these "humanitarian" initiatives.

Today the real "challenge" is to stop playing the role of buffoon and throw cold water on the iatrogenocide practiced by the complex pharmaceutical industry-institutions-foundations.


Image after illustration at Harper's Weekly, April 17, 1869 [ua-fu/fd] and Bill Gates performing the Ice Bucket Challenge (2014) [ua-fu/fd].

2014-09-16

Struggles

The essential incompatibility between democracy and capitalism is particularly pronounced in neoliberalism. If in a few places and epochs something like the welfare state have been possible, this happened above all because of a series of exceptional factors that forced the capital to cede to the citizenship's rights. As Giorgio Agamben showed, the rule of law is the exception, and the state of exception is the rule (State of Exception, 2005). By contrast, in the so-called "neoliberal" regime, there is a shift from the state primarily protecting the people's rights to the capital's. For this reason the term "neoliberal" is a fallacy, considering the high degree of state intervention that favors the large corporations and the finances.

In these circumstances, it is logical that, under the neoliberal regime, the welfare state 
increasingly becomes a police state, and the security forces act more and more in the service of the capital rather than in that of citizens. Thus, the confrontation of the riot police and the unemployed, the marginalized and the outraged, symbolizes today better than any other phenomenon the notion of class struggle at the point of its greatest tension. (The other one would be the war).

But this confrontation is also that of the capitalist state
machinery against the human emotion, the bureaucratic discipline against the collective creation, the profit calculation against the spontaneity and the cooperation. Also that of the toreador against the bull... Or as Jean Baudrillard put it, class struggle as the "sub-humans struggle against their status as beasts, against the abjection of the caste division that condemns them to the sub-humanity of labour" (Symbolic Exchange and Death, 1976). 

But in fact these distinctions are not as sharp as we said. Because, as in mythical struggles, the hero and the monster in fact swap their characters (Heinrich von Kleist, On the Marionette Theater, 1810). In such a way that only the one who is able to mimetize with his enemy, to metamorphose, deserves the victory.

Image after Austrian Archives/Corbis' Adolf Hitler and others at the 1936 Summer Olympics, Berlin [fu/fd], riots in Greece [ua-fu/fd] and Postales Alcalá's bullfighting scene.

2014-09-15

Obama's Masks

The power in today's neoliberal capitalist regime is held in an increasingly lesser degree by the traditional political representatives. These are becoming mere puppets whose task is to give a face and appropriate words to the general decisions taken in other levels. Power is located today, above all, along a complex labyrinth of institutions, corporations, regulatory agencies, foundations, lobbies, think tanks, secret societies... Between each other --through the so-called "revolving doors"-- gray characters parade, with no more personality than their submission and their hunger for power, ensuring that the political decisions are taken according to the interests of big capital. They know that their work will be rewarded in one way or another if they act in this sense.  

Put another way, who rules today is the capital. This means that in addition to these heterogeneous ensemble of organisms, a series of conventions, laws, jurisprudences, regulations, mechanisms, practices, etc. are in fact imbued with power, to the extent that they allow and favor the interests of capital. This functions in practice as a dictatorship, no less genocidal than the military ones, with which they work in coordination (Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, 2007).

Neoliberal capitalism and democracy are by definition incompatible. Today's rulers --of course we are talking in general-- have the task of deceiving their people, hiding that the true power regime is, as said, a dictatorship of capital and huge amounts of this capital flow daily from the peripheries to the centers, with their knowledge and complicity.

Image after Pete Souza / White House's photo of Barack Obama (2012) [pd-fu/fd].

2014-09-14

Blessed Are They Which Are Called unto the Surveillance of the Lord

In those parts of the empire in which the implementation of the police state is more advanced, as it is the case of the United Kingdom, a very significant figure has been reached, with regard to the statistics of surveillance. Thus, it is estimated that in this country there is one surveillance video camera for every twelve people. Interestingly this number coincides with that defined by the official tradition of Christianity --due to its numerological symbolism--  for Jesus of Nazareth's apostles.

We are obviously at an intermediate stage in the transition process from the Christian to the capitalist religion, or in other words, the "fall" of God's transcendence into the immanence of the system, as Walter Benjamin put it (Capitalism as Religion, 1985). It seems therefore reasonable that this process would continue and conclude at the time when this control devices, in one way or another, become completely internalized in each individual, so that the body would obey the dictates of the God-Capital. Obviously we hope that this atrocity will never take place.

For now, what we can say is that, at least in the areas representing the avant-garde of capitalism, "blessed are they which are called unto the surveillance of the Lord" (after Revelation).

Image after Juan de Juanes' The Last Supper (ca. 1562) [pd] and Great Seal of the United States' reverse of one-dollar bill (1957) [pd-fu/fd] .

2014-09-12

Invitation to Have a Soup

Today we are experiencing a vertiginous shift towards a completely surveyed world, in which we are all suspect and all our activities are registered in the divine eye of the system. What characterizes the totalitarian states is what we are suffering today on a global scale, in the form of a global totalitarianism. All Orwell's prophecies (Nineteen Eighty-Four, 1949) are happening right now with terrifying precision.

But in this situation, perhaps the most lucid reaction would simply be playing another game. Jean Baudrillard wrote that "we will not destroy the system by a direct, dialectical revolution of the economic or political infraestructure. [...] We will not defeat it by following its own logic... [...] We will never defeat the system in the plane of the real..." (Symbolic Exchange and Death, 1976). Thus, the challenge is not resisting in the classical sense, but rather, absorbing this dynamic not just with an opposite movement, but rather with another belonging to other nature, to other level... The challenge is how to overcome this dynamic of the system without following its rules, its violence. Or, in other words, "defy the system with a gift to which it cannot respond save its own collapse and death" (ibid).

Image [aw] after alphabet soup.

The Invisible (and Bloody) Hand

In the midst of neoliberal dictatorship, it is usual that the dominant ideology invokes the famous metaphor of the "invisible hand" as it was used by the Father of Liberalism Adam Smith. According to this notion, the "individual interest" of each of the participants in the economy, would automatically lead, thanks to the intervention of a divine "hand", to the "public good" of the whole (The Wealth of Nations, 1776). What Smith didn't know or omitted in this famous formula, but didn't escape Shakespeare more than a century before, is that this "hand" is not only "invisible", but also "bloody" (Macbeth, 1623).

It is said that in a negotiation, all parties must give something up. But in today's world most important negotiations a different logic
governs. In these big negotiations all parties gain to a lesser or greater degree, and as much as the parties excluded from the table lose. This is how, among other non-democratic mechanisms, the dictatorship of capital works.  

The propaganda of the system presents the beneficial "invisible hand" of liberalization and structural adjustments, while at the same time conceals the maleficent, "bloody hand", that charges at the victims of the moment. The system works therefore as an insane, murderous machine.

Image after Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel, 1511-1512) [pd], Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) [fu/fd] and IMF / Stephen Jaffe's G-20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors' Meeting in Washington DC (2010) [fu/fd].

2014-09-10

Propaganda Transparency

With architectural transparency occurs as with many other phenomena of capitalism; they have been "recuperated" by the system to end up being its propaganda, that is, masking the true essence of the capitalist regime. Thus, architectural transparency, which would symbolize a transparent society and transparent politics, has been used in fact as a smokescreen to hide the opacity, the corruption and the institutionalized crime that are structural in the system, particularly in its last neoliberal modality. It is not a coincidence that this architectural transparency has been particularly adopted in the financial sector, the most fraudulent. Bank branches want to provide to their customers an image of nearness, openness and transparency, while behind closed doors the top-level managers negotiate with the international crime and opaque banks guard the bribes offered by the big capital to the dictators to repress his people. A similar logic can be observed in the so-called "democratic" parliaments, which offer its citizens an image of transparency and accessibility, while the "representatives of the people" secretly negotiate with the lobbyists the next free trade agreement, which will deprive people's sovereignty.

In fact today those who contributed more to the "transparency", as it is the case of Julian Assange or Edward Snowden, are precisely who are confined, threatened by a system based on opacity and which relentlessly persecutes those who call it into question.

Image after AP Photo / Kirsty Wigglesworth's Julian Assange at the Equador Embassy in London (2012) [fu/fd]  and Kurt F. Domnik / Pixelio's German Parliament [fu/fd].

2014-09-09

The Death of Man

We tend to think that religion and science are opposed. But as always, the conflict has been rather a staging masking a much deeper consensus between the two apparent rivals. Thus, both forms of knowledge and power are fundamentally based on the death of man, and on the knowledge that a body of initiates obtains, records and transmits from this death. "Science, technics and production assume this rupture of the living and the non-living, privileging the non-living on which alone science in all its rigour is based... Even the 'reality' of science and technics is also the separation of the living and the dead. The very finality of science as pulsion, as the death drive (the desire to know), is inscribed in this disjunction, so that an object is only real insofar as it is dead, that is, relegated to inert and indifferent objectivity, as were initially, above everything else, the dead and the living" (Jean Baudrillard, Symbolic Exchange and Death, 1976).

In addition, this death is not only, in most of the cases, a single death but a violent one. Religious sacrifices in almost all cultures consist precisely in putting to death, in transforming earthly life into eternal life. But the scientific sacrifices are no less violent. It would be useless to base the scientific rituals on an already accomplished death. Science, like religion, needs to produce this death as a prerequisite to its spiritual knowledge. And this is the body in which any progress in science must be obtained.

Image after Giuseppe Enrie's Shroud of Turin (1931) [pd] and Ötzi the Iceman [ua-fu/fd].

The Threat of the Symbols

Undoubtedly one of the characteristics of the symbols of nations today, as it is the case of flags, is their tendency to become more abstract. To varying degrees, all flags have been getting rid of their more explicit references to violencecastles and towers, armors, shields and weapons, eagles and lions... And yet the fact that the flags manage to completely omit these explicit references to violence does not mean that these cease to work, although in a latent way, in the symbolic mechanism. For we consider that the symbols function according to a logic of "threat" of violence, in a similar way as Walter Benjamin showed for the law (Critique of Violence, 1921).

We should note that the flags never appear isolated. They are always represented attached to other symbols of power with which they exchange or share their power, as they would be contagious. The symbols are not only a sign of power, but they also can, that is to say, power is essentially symbolic as much as the symbols are
powerful. This, that seems to be a wordplay, is in fact something elemental that most people who know how the power works, although intuitively, recognize. Therefore flags, even when they have been purified from explicit references to violence, are charged with such power. A power that "threats" due to the context in which they are performed.  

Symbol are anything but neutral. For this reason they must be treated with the utmost care, especially those that seem harmless. 

Image after Hermann Nitsch's Action #130 (2010) [fu/fd] and United States' flag [pd-fu/fd].

The Masks of Reality

We assume that reality is structured at least on two planes --signifiers and signifieds--, bound together by a much more complex symbolism than the univocal relationship between them. To put it simply, the true sense of reality is masked behind their signifiers. Any attempt to understand this reality implies trying to unravel how this symbolism works. With this in mind, it can be understood how certain artistic styles, such as hyperrealism, contribute to make this mask of reality more opaque, rather than to unveil it. Against most of the artistic movements of the twentieth century, which could be interpreted as different attempts to this unraveling of the signification's structure, we consider hyperrealism one of the most reactionary. Some kind of regression of culture, that would explain its popularity among the masses and its support by the most worn-out establishment. For the ideology works precisely in such a way (Slavoj Zizek, In Defense of Lost Causes, 2008): masking the connection between signifiers and signifieds, taking advantage of the dominant connotation of symbols, of their volatility. This phenomenon is particularly evident in the context of the totalitarian shift we are suffering today under the neoliberal regime, that benefits precisely from this regression, particularly to traditional symbols, in order to hide the violent and perverse mechanisms implemented by the different power apparatuses.

Image after Antonio López's Mis padres (1956), Cuarto de baño (1969), Taza de váter y ventana (1968-1971) and Hombre y mujer (1968-1994) [fu/fd].

2014-09-08

From Manhattan to Sierra Maestra

The urban paradigm represented by Manhattan perfectly corresponds to the capitalist system of production and consumption, with its forms of exploitation and representation of nature. The built mass --capitalist consumption-- is organized as an almost completely regular layout, subject to a minimum of restrictions, with an almost unlimited capacity for growth. In the middle of this artificial mass is defined a regular void, Central Park, that recreates, also artificially, the nature --representative nature--. To these two elements --capitalist consumption and representative nature, a third element must be added --exploited nature, of the Earth and the men--, which provides resources and products for the consumption. But this exploited nature is marginalized in the imaginary of the city, is omitted in its representation, replaced, as mentioned, by the representative nature of Central Park. In sum, this is an unsustainable long-term paradigm, which requires large energy resources to connect the exploited nature and the capitalist consumption, extraordinarily aggressive with the exploited nature, including the productive work, and propagandistic in its essence, as the exploitation of nature is hidden and replaced by another empty, artificial, representative.

Against this obsolete and decaying paradigm, we propose another inspired by the Cuban revolution and its heroic resistance to the economic blockade by the capitalist empire. In this case, the nature of exploitation and the nature of representation are the same, modeled after the beginning of the revolution in Sierra Maestra and the peasant support to the guerrilla. Then, instead of a regular void constrained by the capitalist consumption, nature is now a multiform mass allowing a certain scope of moderated, proportioned and
limited consumption within. The model replicates itself following a fractal or homothetic logic, rather than a rational and infinite one, in the same way that the Cuban revolution functions as a reference for other struggles.

Image after William Bridges's Map of Manhattan (1814) [pd], Alberto Korda's Guerrillero Heroico (Heroic Guerrilla Fighter, 1960) [fu/fd] and Jim Fitzpatrick's wallpaper (1968) [fu/fd].